- “USING STAINLESS STEEL PROFITABLY”
Engineering Vol. 203 Mp/ 5263 – 3rd March 1967
Growth in U.K. consumption of stainless steel is 7 per cent per annum but should be higher. There are many potential uses, untapped because of ignorance or vested interests. Its use in domestic water systems, car silencers, roll formed car bumpers and other applications is discussed.
- “THE PRODUCTION OF STAINLESS STEEL BEER CASKS”
Sheet Metal Industries – March 1967
Describes the methods used at the Stockport, Cheshire, England, plant and Fairey Stainless Ltd. Developed from designs by Firestone (U.S.A.) who first introduced single-wall stainless steel casks in 1941 and who have currently produced over 3,004,000 units.
- Use of Stainless Steel for Fourdrinier Wire
HALBIG: “An innovation to the Paper Industry: Stainless Steel Fourdrinierv Wire”. Materials Protection, 1966, vol. 5, Oct., pp. 35-6.
Materials of construction for Fourdrinier belts used in paper-making machinery should, ideally, exhibit good corrosion-resistance (to avoid contamination of the paper) and give long life under the stresses involved in service. The author points out, however, that it is not unusual for conventional belts (e.g., with warp wires of phosphor bronze and cross wires of brass) to have a service life of a month or so, or even as little as a few days.
A principal cause of failure is fatigue, although abrasion wear, mechanical damage or a combination of corrosion and fatigue can also lead to withdrawal of the belt from service. Conventionally processed grades of stainless steel have proved unsuitable for Foundrinier wire, due mainly to fatigue failure.
A composite wire (comprising a phosphor bronze core and a Type 304 stainless-steel surface) combined corrosion-resistance with improved resistance to the effects of flexing, and gave a good service life, but, as the author notes, production costs were somewhat high.
This article draws attention to a processing technique which has been found to confer on a stainless steel the mechanical properties required for Fourdrinier-belt service. The steel (preferably Type 316 17-12-2.5 Mo Steel) is severely cold drawn (i.e. over 80 per cent), and tempered at 1200-1750°F (650-955°C), giving it a tensile strength in the range 110,000-140-000 lb/in2 (49-62.5 ton in2 : 77.5-98.5 kg/mm2) [760 MPa to 960 MPa], an elongation of the order of 2-40 per cent, and a fine equiaxed grain structure. Fatigue properties are similar to those of phosphor bronze, but the much higher strength of the steel in this condition is associated with far greater wear-resistance and durability. The process described forms the subject of U.S. PATENT 3,100,729, an abstract of which appeared in NICKEL BULLETIN, 1964, vol. 37, No. 1-2, p. 36.